Rails Environment Variables

by Taylor Mock and Daniel Kehoe

Last updated 15 December 2012

Setting Rails environment variables. Using ENV variables in Rails, locally and with Heroku. Rails configuration and security with environment variables.

If You Are New to Rails

If you’re new to Rails, see What is Ruby on Rails?, the book Learn Ruby on Rails, and recommendations for a Rails tutorial.

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This is an article from the RailsApps project. The RailsApps project provides example applications that developers use as starter apps. Hundreds of developers use the apps, report problems as they arise, and propose solutions. Rails changes frequently; each application is known to work and serves as your personal “reference implementation.” Each application is accompanied by a tutorial so there is no mystery code. Support for the project comes from subscribers. Please accept our invitation to join the RailsApps project.

Environment Variables

Many applications require configuration of settings such as email account credentials or API keys for external services. You can pass local configuration settings to an application using environment variables.

Operating systems (Linux, Mac OS X, Windows) provide mechanisms to set local environment variables, as does Heroku and other deployment platforms. Here we show how to set local environment variables in the Unix shell. We also show two alternatives to set environment variables in your application without the Unix shell.

Keeping Environment Variables Private

Remote git repositories such as GitHub are a place to store and share code. If your project is open source, any developer will have access to your code. You don’t want to share email account credentials or private API keys with the public. If you’re collaborating on a team with a private git repository, your local settings may not be suitable for all members of the team. In general, you shouldn’t save email account credentials or private API keys to a shared git repository.

Gmail Example

Consider an application that uses Gmail to send email messages. Access to Gmail requires a username and password for access to your Gmail account. In your Rails application, you will need to configure these credentials in the file config/environments/production.rb. A portion of the file might look like this:

config.action_mailer.smtp_settings = {
  address: "smtp.gmail.com",
  port: 587,
  domain: "example.com",
  authentication: "plain",
  enable_starttls_auto: true,
  user_name: ENV["GMAIL_USERNAME"],
  password: ENV["GMAIL_PASSWORD"]
}

You could “hardcode” your Gmail username and password into the file but that would expose it to everyone who has access to your git repository. Instead use the Ruby variable ENV["GMAIL_USERNAME"] to obtain an environment variable. The variable can be used anywhere in a Rails application. Ruby will replace ENV["GMAIL_USERNAME"] with an environment variable.

Let’s consider how to set local environment variables.

Option One: Set Unix Environment Variables

If you’re familiar with Unix, you’ve likely had experience setting environment variables. Unix environment variables are typically set in a file that is read when starting an interactive shell (the ~/.bashrc file for the bash shell).

Are you using a bash shell? Use echo $SHELL to find out. For a bash shell, using the Gmail example, edit the ~/.bashrc file and add:

export GMAIL_USERNAME="myname@gmail.com"

You’ll have to open a new shell or restart your terminal application to continue.

It’s important to learn to use the Unix shell if you’re commited to improving your skills as a developer. But troubleshooting shell problems can be difficult, especially when using rvm, the Ruby Version Manager, or when the application is launched in nonstandard ways.

We’ll show you two alternatives to using the Unix shell that only require a few lines of code in your Rails application to set environment variables. Use one of these alternative approaches when you don’t want to set environment variables in the Unix shell.

Option Two: Use the Figaro Gem

The figaro gem offers a practical alternative to setting environment variables in the Unix shell.

The gem takes advantage of Ruby’s ability to set environment variables as well as read them. The gem reads a config/application.yml file and sets environment variables before anything else is configured in the Rails application.

If you want to use different credentials in development, test, or production environments, the gem will let you specify the different credentials in the config/application.yml file. If you’re deploying to Heroku, the gem gives you a rake task that will set all the environment variables on Heroku. The gem also gives you a syntax to access the environment variables as Figaro method calls which can be useful in setting up tests.

The figaro gem makes it so easy to set configuration variables you may find it useful to set other configuration parameters besides email account credentials or private API keys.

Here’s how to use it. In your Gemfile, add:

gem 'figaro'

and run $ bundle install.

The gem provides a generator:

$ rails generate figaro:install

The generator creates a config/application.yml file and modifies the .gitignore file to prevent the file from being checked into a git repository.

You can add environment variables as key/value pairs to config/application.yml:

GMAIL_USERNAME: Your_Username

The environment variables will be available anywhere in your application as ENV variables:

ENV["GMAIL_USERNAME"]

This gives you the convenience of using the same variables in code whether they are set by the Unix shell or the figaro gem’s config/application.yml. Variables in the config/application.yml file will override environment variables set in the Unix shell.

In tests or other situations where ENV variables might not be appropriate, you can access the configuration values as Figaro method calls:

Figaro.env.gmail_username

Use this syntax for setting different credentials in development, test, or production environments:

HELLO: world
development:
  HELLO: developers
production:
  HELLO: users

In this case, ENV["HELLO"] will produce “developers” in development, “users” in production and “world” otherwise.

Figaro provides a rake task to set the environment variables in the config/application.yml file as Heroku environment variables:

rake figaro:heroku

If you’re using one of the RailsApps example applications or you have generated a starter application using the Rails Composer tool, you’ll find a file named config/application.yml. This file was added by the figaro gem and contains key/value entries for each environment variable you may need. Each entry is commented out. Remove the comment character if you want to override environment variables from the Unix shell or set the environment variables using the config/application.yml file.

Option Three: Use a local_env.yml File

Like the figaro gem, this technique takes advantage of Ruby’s ability to set environment variables as well as read them. The figaro gem has additional features and we recommend it. However, if you want to understand how to set environment variables from within your Rails application, or you don’t want to add the figaro gem to your application, you may want to consider this implementation.

We’ll create a simple file that contains key/value pairs for each environment variable using the standard YAML file format. We’ll make sure this file is listed in the .gitignore file so it isn’t checked into the git repository. And we’ll add some code to the config/application.rb to read the file and set the environment variables before anything else is configured in the Rails application.

The local_env.yml File

Create a file config/local_env.yml:

# Rename this file to local_env.yml
# Add account settings and API keys here.
# This file should be listed in .gitignore to keep your settings secret!
# Each entry gets set as a local environment variable.
# This file overrides ENV variables in the Unix shell.
# For example, setting:
# GMAIL_USERNAME: 'Your_Gmail_Username'
# makes 'Your_Gmail_Username' available as ENV["GMAIL_USERNAME"]
GMAIL_USERNAME: 'Your_Gmail_Username'

Set .gitignore

If you have created a git repository for your application, your application root directory should contain a file named .gitignore (it is a hidden file). Be sure your .gitignore file contains:

/config/local_env.yml

This prevents the config/local_env.yml file from being checked into a git repository and made available for others to see.

Rails Application Configuration File

Rails provides the config/application.rb file for specifying settings for various Rails components. We want to set our environment variables before any other settings. Rails provides a config.before_configuration method to do so. See the RailsGuide Configuring Rails Applications for more.

Find the following code at the end of the config/application.rb file:

# Version of your assets, change this if you want to expire all your assets
    config.assets.version = '1.0'

and add this code after it:

config.before_configuration do
  env_file = File.join(Rails.root, 'config', 'local_env.yml')
  YAML.load(File.open(env_file)).each do |key, value|
    ENV[key.to_s] = value
  end if File.exists?(env_file)
end

The code opens the config/local_env.yml file, reads each key/value pair, and sets environment variables.

The code only runs if the file exists. If the file exists, the code overrides ENV variables set in the Unix shell. If you prefer to set environment variables in the Unix shell, don’t create the config/local_env.yml file.

Using Environment Variables

Use ENV["GMAIL_USERNAME"] anywhere in a Rails application. Your application won’t know if it was loaded from the config/local_env.yml file or from the Unix shell.

Distinguishing Development From Test Environments

Occasionally you’ll want to use different account credentials or API keys for test and development environments.

Give the variables different names, for example:

GMAIL_USERNAME_DEV: 'Your_Gmail_Username_For_Development'
GMAIL_USERNAME_TEST: 'Your_Gmail_Username_For_Tests'

and use the variables conditionally:

if Rails.env.development?
  config.action_mailer.smtp_settings = {
    user_name: ENV["GMAIL_USERNAME_DEV"]
  }
end

if Rails.env.test?
  config.action_mailer.smtp_settings = {
    user_name: ENV["GMAIL_USERNAME_TEST"]
  }
end

if Rails.env.production?
  config.action_mailer.smtp_settings = {
    user_name: ENV["GMAIL_USERNAME"]
  }
end

This approach works with either the config/local_env.yml file or environment variables obtained from the Unix shell.

Setting Environment Variables on Heroku

Heroku is a popular choice for low cost, easily configured Rails application hosting. See the article Heroku and Rails for details.

Heroku provides a simple mechanism for setting environment variables. After creating your Heroku app, set Heroku environment variables to provide the same data your application obtains from your local shell environment.

For example, for Gmail:

$ heroku config:add GMAIL_USERNAME=myname@gmail.com

If you have multiple environments on Heroku:

$ heroku config:add GMAIL_USERNAME=myname@gmail.com --remote staging

You can check that everything has been added correctly by running:

$ heroku info --app myapp

where “myapp” is the name of your Heroku application.

If you are using the figaro gem, just run:

rake figaro:heroku

Notice that you don’t use the config/application.yml file. Your .gitignore file should prevent it from getting added to the git repository. It won’t exist when you deploy to Heroku and your application will obtain environment variables from the Heroku configuration table.

Other Approaches

There are other approaches to setting environment variables in Rails.

Tammer Saleh suggests a similar approach using the Rails environment.rb file in his blog posting, Managing Heroku environment variables for local development.

Brandon Keepers offers the dotenv Ruby gem that handles loading environment variables in development. The dotenv gem loads environment variables from a .env file.

Foreman is a tool for starting and configuring multiple processes in a complex application. Foreman will load environment variables from a .env file.

There are numerous gems such as yettings that set application configuration variables or other constants from a YAML file and allow access the to values with a method such as AppConfig.gmail_username. This approach is best used for constants that can be checked into a git repository and are not specific to a particular deployment. Local environment variables are better suited to deployment-specific configuration settings.

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